名词有几个类别，而且这些类别之间可能有重叠。例如，有普通名词和专有名词，具体名词和抽象名词，但有些名词既具体又普通，或具体又专有。当你继续读下去的时候，你就会明白了。There are several categories of nouns, and there can be overlap across the categories. For example, there are common and proper nouns, and concrete and abstract nouns, yet some nouns are both concrete and common, or concrete and proper. It will become clear as you read on.
普通名词是指大多数一般事物的词Common nouns are the words that refer to most general things: country, evening, laughter, puppy, umbrella
- Cathy loves the weekends in the country.
- We enjoy swimming after breakfast.
- The cup fell and broke.
专有名词是指标识某人或某物、某人或某地的名称。专有名词要大写。约翰是一个专有名词，因为约翰这个词代表的是某件事的一个特定的、单一的例子。Proper nouns are the name that identifies someone or something, a person or a place. Proper nouns are capitalized. John is a proper noun since the word John represents a particular, single example of a thing, John.
专有名词的例子：Mary, Jimmy, Aunt Audrey, Honda, Philadelphia
- Emily loved spending time with her Aunt Nancy in Paris.
- Buick and Jeep are two important carmakers.
- We visited Lake Erie, which separates the United States and Canada.
具体的名词代表真实的、有形的事物:Concrete nouns represent a thing that is real and tangible: pig, person, rock, smell, air, soup, Larry are all concrete nouns.
具体名词的例子: cup, computer, diamond, rollercoaster, shampoo, Debby
- The person threw the rock across the yard.
- My dog, Oreo, jumped in the air and caught the ball!
- Can you smell the soup, John?
抽象名词更像是一种概念或想法: An abstract noun represents a thing that is more like a concept or idea: love, integrity, democracy, friendship, beauty, knowledge are examples of abstract nouns.
- Love and friendship are equally important.
- Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
- Your mind can know a million things.
名词也可以分为可数名词和不可数名词。Nouns can also be categorized as countable or uncountable.
可数名词是指可以被计数的事物: A countable noun is a thing can be numbered or counted: airplane, sock, bowl, noodle, teacher, as in two airplanes, three socks, 1000 noodles.
可数名词的例子: peach, horse, shirt, telescope
- There are five dogs in the street.
- I bought three tons of coal.
- Margaret has six pairs of blue sandals.
不可数名词可以有数量或数量，但不能实际计数:water, music, clothes, understanding。在上面的第二个例子中，吨是可数名词，但coal不是。coal 被称为不可数名词。Uncountable nouns can have a quantity or amount but cannot be actually counted: water, music, clothes, understanding. In the second example above, tons is a countable noun, but coal is not. Coal is referred to as an uncountable noun.
不可数名词的例子：hate, confidence, attractiveness, wisdom
- Love is in the air.
- The four elements are air, earth, fire and water.
- Her humor knows no bounds.
集合名词指的是一群人或事物：Collective nouns refer to a group of people or things: audience, team, bunch, family, class. 当谈到集合名词时，美国人认为它们是单数，用单数动词与它们连用。说英式英语时，动词单数和复数都可以使用。When speaking of collective nouns, Americans consider them as singular, using singular verbs with them. When speaking British English, both singular verbs and plural verbs might be used.
集合名词例子：government, jury, team, bunch, school, class, and room (the people in the room or building)
- The team threw confetti when it was over.
- Steve buys the band some sandwiches.
- Meredith told the class she was getting married.
如上所述，当我们谈论名词的类别时，有些名词可以被描述为在一个以上的类别中。有些名词是具体的和可数的，如raindrops和wedding rings，而有些是可数的和不可数的，如the Atlantic Ocean和Alaska。As mentioned above, when we talk of categories of nouns, some nouns can be described as being in more than one category. Some nouns are concrete and countable, for example, such as raindrops and wedding rings, while some are proper and uncountable, such as the Atlantic Ocean and Alaska.
(count) I’ve read that book several times.
(mass) Time seemed to stop when I saw him for the first time.
(singular) The time is 3:22.
(plural) Fuel costs three times as much as it did five years ago.