在某种程度上，每个人都有同样的问题:什么是普通名词?在这里，我们来看看常见的名词，并提供一些常见的名词例子，这样当你看到它们时，你就可以很容易地认出它们。不要担心，这将是无痛的。At some point, everyone has the same question: What is a common noun? Here, we’ll take a look at common nouns and provide some common noun examples so you can easily recognize common nouns when you see them. Don’t worry, this will be painless.
名词是用来命名人、动物、地点、事物或想法的词。所有的名词都可以进一步分为专有名词和普通名词。普通名词是用来命名一般事物而不是特定事物的词。去你的客厅。你看到了什么?灯，椅子，沙发，电视，窗户，绘画，枕头，蜡烛，所有这些物品都用普通的名词来命名。普通名词无处不在，即使你没有意识到，你也一直在使用它们。无论你走到哪里，你都会发现至少有一个普通名词。街道、衣柜、浴室、学校、商场、加油站、客厅;所有这些地方都是事物，因此它们是普通名词。A noun is a word that names a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. All nouns can be further classified as a proper or common noun. Common nouns are words used to name general items rather than specific ones. Go into your living room. What do you see? A lamp, chair, couch, TV, window, painting, pillow, candle – all of these items are named using common nouns. Common nouns are everywhere, and you use them all the time, even if you don’t realize it. Wherever you go, you’ll find at least one common noun. Street, closet, bathroom, school, mall, gas station, living room; all of these places are things, and thus they are common nouns.
当我们观察的两个主要类型的名词适当的和常见的我们可以区分两个说,普通名词是一个通用的分类方式,以及专有名词是一种特定的方式分类,因此,例如,“狗”这个词是一个普通名词;但如果你的狗叫Fido, Fido这个词就是专有名词When we look at the two main types of noun – proper and common – we can differentiate between the two by saying that a common noun is a general way of classifying something, and a proper noun is a specific way of classifying something, So, for example, the word dog is a common noun; but if your dog was called Fido, the word Fido is a proper noun:
- Dog = common noun
- Dog’s name (Fido, in this case) = proper noun
- My favorite newspaper (common noun) is the Washington Post (proper noun).
- Her husband (common noun) is called Frank (proper noun).
- The award-winning Babe Ruth (proper noun) is the greatest baseball player (common noun) in history.
你可能已经从这些例子中注意到，普通名词通常不大写，除非它们在句子开头，而专有名词通常大写。你还会注意到这两种类型的名词都可以是多个单词。You may have noticed from the examples that common nouns are not usually capitalized, unless they begin a sentence, whereas proper nouns are normally capitalized. You will also notice that both types of nouns can be more than a single word.
我们用普通名词来表示一类物体或一个概念。想想星星这个词，就像我们在天空中看到的星星一样。星星是一个普通的名词，用来表示我们在夜空中看到的一类物体，也就是说，遍布宇宙的发光物体在头顶上闪烁。然而，太阳是一个专有名词，用来描述我们太阳系中心的特定恒星。We use common nouns to denote a class of objects or a concept. Consider the word star, as in the stars we see in the sky. Star is used as a common noun, used to denote the class of objects that we view in the night sky, i.e. the luminescent bodies that are spread across the universe, twinkling overhead. The Sun, however, is a proper noun, used to describe the specific star that is at the center of our solar system.
所以，任何事物都可以被归类为普通名词 So, anything that is a thing can be generally classified as a common noun:
Professions: lawyer, doctor, teacher, nurse, politician, football player.
People: 一般来说，人们用普通的名词来命名，尽管在某些情况下，他们的正式头衔或名字是专有名词。当我们用普通名词指代人时，我们会用teacher, clerk, police officer, preacher, delivery driver, boyfriend, girlfriend, grandma, cousin, and barista这样的单词。 People in general are named using common nouns, though their official titles in certain cases or given names are proper nouns. When we refer to people using common nouns, we use words like teacher, clerk, police officer, preacher, delivery driver, boyfriend, girlfriend, grandma, cousin, and barista.
例如，当谈论你的母亲时，mother是一个普通的名词。For example, when talking about your mother, mother is a common noun.
- My mother is an actress.
- Barbara’s mother was the best cook in the city.
但是当你和你的母亲说话，或者用mother作她的名字时，mother是一个专有名词。But when speaking to your mother, or using mother as her name, mother is used as a proper noun.
- “Mother, can you bake your brownies for the party?”
- I asked Mother Thompson to join us at dinner.
Objects: car, newspaper, boat, potato chip, shoe, house, table, sword.
然而，普通名词也可以是更抽象的概念，不是事物，而是想法、情感和经验。However, common nouns can also be more abstract concepts, not things but ideas, emotions and experiences, for example:
Abstract ideas: Culture, love, democracy, time, hatred, peace, war, empathy, anger, laughter.
考虑到我们上面列出的，应该很容易识别一个普通的名词。然而，在某些情况下，这可能会很棘手。考虑一下这些句子Considering what we have laid out above, it should be pretty easy to recognize a common noun. However, there are some cases when it can be tricky. Consider these sentences:
- Queen Elizabeth II welcomed President Donald Trump to Buckingham Palace.
- Donald Trump visited many queens and palaces during his tenure as the president of the United States.
In the first sentence, Queen Elizabeth II, President Trump and Buckingham Palace are proper nouns. They are specific titles for a specific person.
In the second sentence, queens, palaces and president are common nouns. Queens and palaces refer to queens and palaces in general, and president refers to the job title and not the specific person.
我们之前提到过，工作头衔和一般头衔属于普通名词的范畴:律师、演员、喜剧演员、卡车司机、中士、军官、秘书。然而，如果这些变成了特定的人名，它们有时就会变成专有名词，就像上面的例子一样。通常情况下，这意味着这些词直接放在那个人的名字前面时要大写We mentioned earlier that job titles and general titles fall under the category of common nouns – attorney, actor, comedian, truck driver, sergeant, officer, secretary. However, if these become specific titles referring to a specific person, they sometimes become proper nouns as in the examples above. Normally, this means the words are capitalized when placed directly in front of that person’s name:
- Attorney General William Barr was appointed by President
但是看看我们如何将相同的单词与普通名词一起使用But look how we can use the same words with common nouns:
- Each US president must appoint an attorney general while in office.
所以，你可以通过它不大写的事实来识别普通名词。但请记住，普通名词也可以被识别，因为它们指的是非特定的事物或分类。So, you can recognize the common noun by the fact it is not capitalized. But remember that common nouns can also be identified because they are referring to non-specific things or classifications.
结论是:普通名词是一般名称，除非它们是标题的一部分，如Postmaster general或句子开头，否则它们通常不大写。The takeaway is this: common nouns are general names and unless they are part of a title like Postmaster General or begin a sentence, they’re not usually capitalized.
以下常见名词的例子将帮助你识别常见名词。在下面的句子中，普通名词的例句用斜体表示。请注意，提供专有名词的例子命名了同一类型的人、动物、地点、事物或想法的特定版本。The following common noun examples will help you to recognize common nouns. In the sentences that follow, common noun examples are italicized. Notice that the examples providing proper nouns name specific versions of the same type of person, animal, place, thing, or idea.
- Common Noun: You broke my favorite mug. Proper Noun: I can’t believe you broke my Snoopy mug.
- Common Noun: I really want a new pair of jeans. Proper Noun: I really want to buy a new pair of Levis.
- Common Noun: I wish I could remember the name of that painter. Proper Noun: I really love art by Van Gogh.
- Common Noun: They’re all waiting for us at the restaurant. Proper Noun: Everyone else is at Bill’s Burgers.
- Common Noun: I really want to live in the city Proper Noun: Of all the places I’ve lived, Denver was best.
- Common Noun: Let’s go to watch a live game at the stadium. Proper Noun: Let’s try to get good seats at Wrigley Field